Views: 4 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2020-03-13 Origin: Site
The forging, stamping and sheet metal manufacturing industries are the basic industries of the machinery manufacturing industry, and they are also a barometer of the development of the manufacturing industry. Generally speaking, compared with 2017, the forging, stamping and sheet metal manufacturing industries in 2018 showed steady and rising performance, but only declined in the second half of the year.
The forging, stamping, and sheet metal manufacturing industry serves all machinery manufacturing industries, including construction, municipal engineering, and infrastructure construction. It also has a close relationship with the defense and power generation industries. Therefore, it is necessary to fully describe the forging, stamping, and sheet metal industries. The actual situation in the gold making industry is very difficult.
With reference to the development of many industries, it can be basically concluded that the demand for supporting industries has increased, and the development of forging, stamping and sheet metal manufacturing industries that are closely related to it has been good. In 2018, industries related to construction machinery, rail transit construction, telecommunications, petrochemicals, trucks and other industries have developed better. Export-oriented companies have also developed well, and some companies' sales have increased by 30%. Therefore, companies in the forging, stamping and sheet metal production industry have been developing well and have difficulty in development. However, the proportion of well-developed companies is different. Based on the current situation, it is estimated that the forging, stamping and sheet metal manufacturing industry has about In the first half of the year, 85% of the companies increased or stayed flat, while in the second half of the year, about 60% of the orders decreased. The decline in sales in the second half of the year caused rampant forging, stamping and sheet metal manufacturing companies. The downward pressure on the economy in 2019 is still high, and the automotive industry is in a grim situation. Some companies with weak core competitiveness may close or close down.
Several current policies issued by the state have an impact on the forging, stamping and sheet metal manufacturing industries. Some have positive effects and some have negative effects. These policies mainly include environmental protection, capacity reduction and supply-side reforms. The positive effect is basically consistent with the country's expectations, but it is not reflected in the industry, and the negative impact on the forging, stamping and sheet metal manufacturing industry is very fatal. The negative impact of environmental protection policies is that there is no data to rely on in law enforcement, and there is no difference in the treatment of the particularities of the industry. The "one size fits all" approach has greatly damaged the normal development of the forging, stamping and sheet metal manufacturing industries. This is because "people always It is to treat basic manufacturing as a low-end industry. "
The main impact of de-capacity on the industry is the rise in material prices and the decrease in the variety of materials. The supply of raw materials has not been refined, but has become more "rough", which seriously affects the product development and quality of the forging, stamping and sheet metal manufacturing industries. Promotion. For many years, the state has advocated strong foundation projects. Among them, the "basic materials and basic processes" are very important. However, in actual implementation, no real implementation has been seen. This foundation has not been really valued. Instead, it is still doing "from scratch." "Breakthrough work", the lack of foundation of the basic industry, can not make the entire industry stronger. The iron and steel industry's capacity reduction is a good policy from the perspective of macroeconomic development, but due to non-market behavior and technical cognitive deviations in implementation, many “special” materials that can provide basic materials for the forging, stamping and sheet metal manufacturing industries have been eliminated. Steel ”base. "Special steel" manufacturing bases are often companies that develop and produce high-grade, unique materials. This de-capacity approach brings great survival difficulties to the basic manufacturing industry.
The main content of supply-side reform includes labor, land, capital, system creation, and innovation. It is very necessary from a macroeconomic perspective, but it has brought unprecedented shocks to basic manufacturing, which is the labor shortage. Because the country vigorously develops the tertiary industry, it has caused a shortage of human resources in the secondary industry. Difficulties in recruitment, employment and retention have become serious obstacles to the development of the manufacturing industry. In this case, the foundations-forging, stamping and sheet metal The labor difficulty of the gold making industry is even worse.
At present, the biggest difficulty facing the forging, stamping and sheet metal manufacturing industries is "difficult labor", and the biggest challenge is China's increased free trade policy. "The market has opened to the outside world and domestic enterprises have closed." The fundamental solution from the system is that the state should treat the basic manufacturing industry, new high-tech industries and the tertiary industry differently in terms of taxation.
How to make the basic manufacturing industry more dynamic, based on the practical experience of these years, we ca n’t completely rely on the implementation of the “National Support Policy-Project System” to get the state funding support to boost the industry. These policies can only be used for some Breakthroughs in a single area cannot achieve "the overall boost of the industry". The most effective way should be to adopt a differentiated tax system or a preferential tax system to achieve the improvement of the overall industry. If the problem of employment difficulties in basic manufacturing is to be alleviated, the state should formulate corresponding industrial army special encouragement policies, study and establish special policies for industrial workers' personal income tax and social security issuance. The problem will be better solved.
There will be special cases of how the forging, stamping and sheet metal manufacturing industry can develop healthily and sustainably, but the development of the following ideas can also find a correct development path. Based on the summary of the development characteristics in 2018 and before, Make the following comments:
An enterprise must develop a production-oriented enterprise or group that specializes in forgings, stampings, and sheet metal fabrications characterized by product differentiation. Groups can coexist in multiple categories, but the production base must form a single production based on the product category. This development model can make the product refined and perfect, and can maximize the maximum benefits of people, money and materials, while avoiding the negative impact of unskilled technology and employee comparisons.
Forging, stamping, and sheet metal production are the inevitable development of integration, large-scale and systematization. This is the inevitable conclusion brought by the current series and automated thinking. Therefore, in the search for products, we must start from forgings, stampings and sheet metal. The research on the function and role of the production part starts, and understands its supporting system, so as to find opportunities to develop new products and improve.
Forging technology follows a multi-station automation technology development path. If it cannot be achieved, it is also necessary to shorten the "process transfer time" as much as possible, reduce production cycles, improve production efficiency, and reduce energy and material consumption. In this regard, for small die forgings, mechanical presses have a comparative advantage. For very important large forgings, large tonnage equipment attempts to “forge large die forgings” to achieve near-net-shape forming, and it has certain prospects to change the traditional process.
The core problem of large forgings is the integrated process development of raw material manufacturing-forging process-heat treatment-machining, of which raw material smelting is the foundation, and the important core of this foundation should be auxiliary materials such as precise control of alloy purity and alloy composition, refractory materials, etc. Exploration of quality and smelting mechanism.
The core issues of small die forgings are proper die life and efficient production methods. The various forging technology currently possessed have mature experience, different users and different effects. The solution of mold life has been very inspired by developed countries overseas, that is, the mold steel is manufactured and used according to the characteristics of the mold. The smelting and manufacturing of mold steel adhere to the "different homogeneity, different homogeneity". In the use of mold steel, it is recommended to use a composite mold and use different mold materials to make different mold cavities. Die surfacing repair and "welding" technology are also being developed, and surfacing technology has been widely used.
From the perspective of the current development trend of the international forging industry, it is the only way for forging enterprises to properly develop machining and aim at the development of finished parts or components. There are relatively large problems in relying solely on forgings to survive. In reality, if the forging company develops parts processing, it will be easier to strengthen the close relationship with the end user and realize the desire to participate in it from the beginning of product design.
The typical process technology of stamping is drawing and punching, and the most important development direction of drawing is servo drawing technology. Servo drawing technology is still in the summary stage of principle exploration and performance expansion, and has not yet formed a complete application system. Whether some traditional processes can be applied to servo deep drawing is still being explored, but it has been proven in practice that it is inappropriate and sometimes wasteful to use traditional thinking to design servo deep drawing molds to adapt to the traditional deep drawing process. Another is the deep drawing of small parts. It is generally recognized that high-speed punching can be achieved with high-speed punching, and multi-station high-speed punching can be achieved with multi-station (or progressive die) high-speed punching. Whether to use ordinary high-speed punch or servo high-speed punch, the core problem is to solve the problem of high efficiency. The development of fine blanking has evolved from a simple separation process to a "forming" process, which is a development direction of fine blanking in the future.
The automation, information and intelligence of stamping production is one of the important paths for the long-term development of stamping enterprises. Some advanced stamping companies have begun to study the application of online automatic detection of stamping parts, automatic end-of-line framing of large stamping parts, and stamping workshops. AGV automatic logistics, automatic three-dimensional warehouse of molds, etc. Its purpose is to solve labor difficulties, improve quality, and increase the utilization of plant space, and ultimately achieve the purpose of improving overall efficiency and market competitiveness.
The deep cooperation between the stamping plant and the material plant, the joint development of new materials required by the product, and the joint development of product technology and equipment by the production plant and the equipment plant are also one of the development directions of stamping.
With the diversification and personalization of market demand, many stamping parts produced by traditional processes are completed by laser cutting, CNC punching, bending, rolling and other composite processes to improve flexibility, reduce mold costs, and meet small batches and multiple varieties. demand.
No matter what kind of stamping, mold technology progress is an eternal theme. How to reduce mold manufacturing and commissioning costs, improve mold accuracy and surface quality is the key. Stamping enterprises should expand the research and application of "numerical simulation" process technology as soon as possible. It is particularly important to emphasize that stamping and "finished products" cannot be separated. Therefore, stamping enterprises must develop finished product manufacturing. Unless stamping products are not allowed, this is a good way for stamping enterprises to survive.
Another development route of the stamping industry is the development of high-strength steel, non-ferrous metals and composite materials forming. The development and research of cold-formed high-strength steel forming is one of the current international efforts. Domestic companies are also actively engaged in hot forming processes and equipment Technical research, but cold forming research is almost blank.
The key to the development of sheet metal production is the design and technology of bending, cutting and punching. The use of composite machining centers will become the focus of development. From the perspective of enterprise development, sheet metal production enterprises must focus on product (consumer product) design and manufacturing. , Must pay attention to the surface quality of sheet metal parts.
From the perspective of the development of stamping and sheet metal production equipment in developed countries, and the development of stamping and sheet metal manufacturing enterprises, many products are very suitable for establishing "unattended" workshops or production units, and are also very suitable for changing from single-piece production to A complete, fully automated "part or product" production line including automatic assembly.
Improving efficiency and reducing costs, reducing labor intensity and product quality, and achieving the integration of the two industries are the eternal themes of forging, stamping and sheet metal production, but only the item of "product performance or quality" is to be up-to-date. Advancing, maintaining a competitive advantage, and insisting on supplying the right "product performance and quality" at the right time are the best ways.
Forging, stamping and sheet metal equipment is the key to achieving high-efficiency, low-cost and high-quality production. It is necessary to overcome the limitations of "thinking can do" to the development of equipment. Make it "requirements.
The forging, stamping and sheet metal manufacturing industries still need to constantly carry out ideological changes. This kind of change involves not only the managers of enterprises, but also the changes of technical personnel. It is necessary to expand the horizon of globalization, revise thinking, Make it happen "in the circle, have the" challenge and meet the maximum benefits "concept, courage and courage to participate in the global market competition.
Chinese forging, stamping and sheet metal production technicians must learn to be liberated from the traditional "technical thinking and process design thinking" mode, and must be able to carry out technical development and product process design based on the current conditions of the current scientific and technological situation. The technical data and process design methods left by humans are verified and updated as necessary.
At present, practitioners in forging, stamping and sheet metal production enterprises must focus on training their thinking and ability to go global, strengthen international exchanges, build self-confidence in communication, overcome self-defence, and focus on the domestic market while moving towards the international market. Pay special attention to "Second time" (the "first time" should be between 1990-2008) The impact and leadership of equipment and technology updates.