Views:0 Author:Site Editor Publish Time: 2020-04-25 Origin:Site
Sheet metal flexible production in traditional manufacturing
1 Sheet metal processing technology
Sheet metal, a processing technology. Sheet metal has not yet had a relatively complete definition. But it is generally considered that sheet metal is a comprehensive process for metal sheets (usually below 6mm). Sheet metal has the characteristics of light weight, high strength, electrical conductivity (can be used for electromagnetic shielding), low cost, and good mass production performance. It has been widely used in electronic appliances, communications, automotive industry, medical equipment and other fields Sheet metal is an indispensable component of control cabinets, automobiles, and consumer products.
There are usually two production modes for sheet metal: one is large-scale standard product production, and the other is small-volume flexible production. Large-scale standard product production can be produced using special molds and mechanical automation models, such as automobiles, home appliances and other industries, with high product quality, fast speed, and low cost. The small batch of flexible production is to meet the personalized needs of industrial production, such as control cabinets, operation tables, etc., it is difficult to use special molds and mechanical automated production on a large scale. Therefore, the consistency of product quality is not high, and the efficiency is low. higher cost.
The sheet metal production process usually includes: punching and blanking, sheet metal bending, sheet metal forming, pressure riveting, welding, drilling, tapping, etc. Among them, in the flexible production of sheet metal, the main process that accounts for the largest proportion of production is punching Hole blanking, sheet metal bending, sheet metal welding. The following describes the three main processes.
2. Punching and blanking
The methods used for punching and blanking are usually CNC punching, cold punching and laser cutting. CNC punching and blanking is to input the processing program in advance in the single-chip microcomputer of the CNC punching machine, including: key information such as part size, processing tool, processing path, etc., through various instructions and combinations of different molds to achieve trimming and punching of different structures Hole, molding and other forms of processing. However, CNC punching cannot achieve punching and blanking of complex shapes. Fast speed, flexible and convenient mold processing, suitable for flexible production with medium batch.
Cold die punching and blanking are pre-made cold die, which are processed by cold die stamping, suitable for production with large output but not large parts, high processing efficiency, good consistency, low cost, and can process complex shapes, especially It is dense hole processing, which can punch holes in a row, with extremely high efficiency. However, the cold die method is not suitable for flexible processing of small and medium batches.
The energy supply for laser cutting is derived from electronic discharge, and the laser is used as a heat source for cutting after focusing by the mirror, which is a non-contact cutting technology. Through pre-programming, the laser motion path is determined, and various shapes of parts are cut and punched. The laser can cut various complex shapes, with fast speed, fine cut, small heat affected zone, no deformation of the material, high precision, and no tool wear, which is extremely suitable for flexible production in small batches.
The above has roughly analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of different processes in punching and blanking. In the process step of punching and blanking, it is necessary for the craftsman to select the appropriate processing technology according to the product structure, processing quantity, quality requirements, and combining process characteristics At the same time, the choice of technology sometimes needs to be accommodated in the scheduling of the workshop.
After determining the process method, it is also necessary to write a processing program on the equipment, and then the worker operates the machine tool to complete the punching and blanking processing. The pros and cons of the processing program will directly affect the production efficiency, processing quality, raw material loss and tool life. This process is a complex process that requires the cooperation of process personnel, workshop directors, workshop workers and other personnel, and requires the participants to have sufficient experience, otherwise it is difficult to optimize production quality and production efficiency.
3 Sheet metal bending
Sheet metal bending refers to the process of changing the angle of a plate or sheet. Generally, there are two methods for sheet metal bending, one is bending using a mold, and the other is bending using a bending machine bend. The mold bending is suitable for the case where the processing volume is large and the size structure is not too large, and parts with complex shapes can be processed. Bending machine bending is suitable for small batches and large structures.
Sheet metal bending is the same as punching and blanking in production, and it also needs to find a balance point in factors such as process, efficiency, quality, and production capacity. It requires experienced craftsmen to make decisions, such as mold bending according to the characteristics of the parts Reasonable design of the mold, bending machine bending need to choose the appropriate tool mold, and adjust reasonable processing parameters. In sheet metal bending, the degree of worker participation will be greater than that of punching and blanking, and human factors have a greater impact on the final processing quality and efficiency.
4 Sheet metal welding
Welding is a manufacturing process and technology for joining metals or other thermoplastic materials such as plastics by means of heating, high temperature or high pressure. The welding process is extremely complex and belongs to a special process. Commonly used welding methods include tungsten argon arc welding, gas arc welding, manual arc welding, resistance welding, stud welding, etc. The regular welding production method is: according to the drawings, classify according to the type of welding seam, material, welding requirements, etc., determine the welding method, and at the same time perform welding process evaluation for each type of welding seam. Test pieces and tests, after passing the welding procedure evaluation, determine various parameters in welding, including current, voltage, welding speed, wire size, wire type, preheating temperature, groove type, blunt edge size, gap size, etc. Even if these parameters are determined, the welder's technology and experience will have a significant impact on the final welding quality. Therefore, in terms of production efficiency, welding is a bottleneck; in terms of quality, welding is a short board; in terms of cost, welding occupies most of it.
5 problems to be solved
The existing manufacturing process can already meet the processing of sheet metal, but it is undeniable that it is because of the variety of processes, the different applicability of the equipment, the uncertainty of manual operation and other factors that make the efficiency of traditional flexible production , Quality, cost and other factors are difficult to achieve optimal, which is also an urgent problem to be solved in flexible sheet metal manufacturing.